Rumays Intl. Trading Co.

Various Standards and Grading methods are used in different regions and countries to determine the quality of petroleum bituminous binders.

The most widely recognized petroleum bitumen standards are published by the following organizations:

  • European Committee for Standardization (CEN)
  • Deutsche Industrie Norm (DIN EN)
  • Association Française de Normalisation (AFNOR – NF EN)
  • BSI Standards – the National Standards Body (NSB – BS EN) of the United Kingdom
  • American Society for Testing and Materials is a professional organization dedicated to the advancement of testing and materials (ASTM)
  • American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials is a third organization (AASHTO)
  • South African Standardization Organization (SABS)
  • Australia’s Standards (AS)

Bitumen Specifications That Are Most Commonly Used

  • ASTM D 946 (Penetration at 25°C)

This specification defines the asphalt cement standard that is intended for use in the construction of pavements. The following penetration grades should be included in this specification: 40-50, 60-70, 85-100, 120-150, and 200-300. The cements must be made by refining crude petroleum using appropriate procedures. When heated to application temperature, the asphalt cement must be homogenous and not froth. ASTM test procedures must be used to establish requirements such as ductility, flash point, trichloroethylene solubility, and penetration.

 

  • AASHTO M 20 (Penetration at 25°C)

This specification covers the following asphalt binder penetration grades for highway construction: 40 to 50, 60 to 70, 85 to 100, 120 to 150, and 200 to 300.

See AASHTO M 226 for viscosity-graded asphalt binders.

 

  • ASTM D 3381 (Viscosity at 60°C)

This specification provides three sets of physical requirement limits for asphalt cements graded by viscosity at a particular temperature and intended for use in pavement construction. The purchaser must mention the corresponding limit table. The cements must be manufactured from crude petroleum using appropriate procedures, and volume adjustments must be made if necessary. Water content, viscosity, penetration, Cleveland open cup flash point, trichloroethylene solubility, ductility, and behavior during thin-film oven and rolling thin-film oven tests on residue are the attributes that the materials must be evaluated for and comply to.

 

  • AASHTO M 226 (Viscosity at 60°C)

This specification applies to asphalt binders graded by viscosity at 60°C (140°F) and intended for use in pavement construction. This standard provides three sets of restrictions.

 

  • ASTM D 6373 (PG-Graded Binder)

This specification applies to asphalt binders that are rated based on performance. Grading classifications are based on the average maximum and lowest pavement design temperatures during a seven-day period. Asphalt binder shall be produced by refining crude petroleum using appropriate methods, with or without the addition of modifiers, which may be any organic material of suitable manufacture used in virgin or recycled condition and dissolved, dispersed, or reacted in asphalt cement to improve its performance. This standard includes a tool for calculating the crucial low cracking temperature by combining test protocols.

 

  • AASHTO M 320 (PG-Graded Binder)

This specification applies to asphalt binders that are rated based on their performance. Grading classifications are based on the average seven-day maximum and minimum pavement design temperatures.

 

  • ASTM D4 – 86(2018)

This test method determines the bitumen content in materials containing at least 25% bitumen. The sample must be representative, and if it includes more than 2% water, it must be dehydrated. The methodologies for determining the bitumen content of materials are described in depth.

 

  • EN 12591 (Penetration at 25°C) ? NF EN; BS EN; DIN EN, and so on.
  • AS 2008 (Viscosity at 60°C)
  • SABS 307 (Penetration at 25°C; Viscosity at 60°C after RTFOT)
  • IS 73 (India) changed from PEN grades to VG grades (based on viscosity at 60°C) in 2006; nevertheless, CRMB modified bitumen is still graded based on penetration.

 

Polymer Modified Bitumen

  • ASTM D 5976

This specification covers asphalt cements that have been modified by the addition of an appropriate polymer for use in pavement construction. It was developed to provide a reference for specifying polymer-modified asphalt and reflects the properties of currently available commercial products. This is not intended to be a performance-based specification.

  • ASTM D 5840, and ASTM D 5841. (based on polymer type; now outdated and not used in the USA, but still used in some developing countries)
  • AASHTO M 320 and ASTM 6373 (PG-Graded Binder; applicable to Unmodified and Polymer Modified Bitumen)
  • EN 14023 (Framework Standard for Polymer Modified Binder)
  • AUSTROADS Framework Specifications (Australia)

Bitumen Emulsions

Bitumen emulsion is a mixture of fine Bitumen droplets and Emulsifiers dispersed in Water.

(Anionic; Cationic; Unmodified; Polymer Modified)

  • ASTM D 977 and AASHTO M 140 for anionic emulsions in the United States;
  • ASTM D 2397 and AASHTO M 208 for cationic emulsions in the United States;
  • AASHTO M 316 for polymer modified cationic emulsions in the United States;
  • EN 13808 Harmonized Framework Standard for Cationic Unmodified and Polymer Modified Emulsions in Europe;
  • Annexes.

 (Note: Internationally there exist a very broad range of emulsion specifications; many of them are technically inaccurate and confusing.)

 

Cutback Bitumen

  • ASTM D 2026

This specification specifies slow-curing cutback petroleum asphalts for use in the construction and treatment of pavements.

  • ASTM D 2027 

This specification specifies medium-curing cutback petroleum asphalts for use in pavement construction and treatment.

  • ASTM D 2028

This specification applies to cutback petroleum asphalts of the rapid-curing type for use in pavement construction and treatment. When heated to application temperature, the cutback asphalt must not foam and must meet the following requirements:

(1) kinematic viscosity, (2) flash point, (3) distillate content, (4) amount of residue from distillation, (5) properties of residue from distillation such as viscosity, ductility, and solubility in trichloroethylene, and (6) water content. The mentioned attributes must be determined using the defined test techniques, which include tag open-cup flash point, distillation, and penetration testing.

  • AASHTO M 81 for Rapid and Medium Curing Cutback

This standard applies to liquid petroleum products used in the treatment of road surfaces that are created by fluxing an asphalt base with acceptable petroleum distillates.

  • AASHTO M 82 for Rapid and Medium Curing Cutback

This standard applies to liquid petroleum products used in the treatment of road surfaces that are created by fluxing an asphalt base with acceptable petroleum distillates.

  • EN 15522 Cutback and Fluxed Bituminous Binder

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *