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Base Oil

Base oil refers to lubrication grade oils that are initially produced by refining crude oil (mineral base oil) or chemical synthesis (synthetic base oil). Base oil is commonly characterized as oil with a boiling point range of 550 to 1050 F and composed of hydrocarbons with 18 to 40 carbon atoms. Depending on the chemical structure of the molecules, this oil might be paraffinic or napthenic in nature.
The following are the most common base oil types:

• Synthetic

• Mineral

The mineral type of base oil is obtained by refining crude oil. A small quantity of crude oil, typically 1 to 2% of a crude oil barrel, is processed in order to produce base oil. The remaining amount is converted into gasoline, diesel, kerosene, coke, bitumen, and other hydrocarbons. Light and heavy hydrocarbons separate during the heating process. The lighter ones will be refined into petrol and other fuels, while the heavier ones will be converted into bitumen and base oil.

The following techniques are used to create Solvent Neutral Mineral base oils from crude oil derivatives.

  1. Distillation is used to alter viscosity and flash point.
  2. Refining, to increase viscosity temperature properties such as viscosity index (solvent extraction with furfural);
  3. Dewaxing (M.E.K dewaxing) to enhance low temperature characteristics.
  4. Hydrofinishing is the process of removing unwanted contaminants from petroleum distillates (such as sulfur and nitrogen compounds and olefins).

The synthetic type of base oil is manufactured through chemical synthesis. Based on the chemical structure of the molecules, this product is classified as paraffinic base oil or naphthenic base oil. It contains hydrocarbons containing 18 to 40 carbon atoms.When compared to other base oil kinds, naphthenic types have superior solubility and qualities at low temperatures. Lubricating oil has 1% to 20% additives combined with base oil.

The pure sample is obtained using the hydrogenation process, which removes sulfur and aromatics by applying high pressure hydrogen.

The purpose of adding chemical additives to base oil is to increase its frictional properties for the goods. Certain types of motor oils, for example, include more than 20 additives.

 

Base oil Categories

In terms of viscosity, saturates and sulfur concentration, and other criteria, The American Petroleum Institute (API) has classified base oils into five major categories as shown below:

  •   Mineral
  1.  Group I Base Oils (Solvent refined)
  2.  Group II Base Oils (Hydro treated)
  3.  Group III Base Oils (Hydrocracked)
  •  Synthetic
  1.  Group IV Base Oils
  2.  Group V Base Oils

The first three groups are refined from petroleum crude oil.

The basic oils in Group 4 are fully synthetic (polyalphaolefin) oils.

Group five contains all additional basic oils that are not included in Groups one through four.

GROUP I BASE OIL

Group I base oils include fewer than 90% saturates, more than 0.3% sulfur, and have a viscosity index ranging from 80 to 120. These oils have a temperature range of 32 to 150 degrees Fahrenheit. Group I base oils are solvent-refined, which is a simpler refining procedure.

GROUP II BASE OIL

Group II base oils are defined as being more than 90 percent saturates, less than 0.03 percent sulfur and with a viscosity index of 80 to 120. They are often manufactured by hydrocracking, which is a more complex process than what is used for Group I base oils. Since all the hydrocarbon molecules of these oils are saturated.

Group II base oils have better anti-oxidation properties. They also have a clearer color and cost more as compared to group I base oils due to better performance. They are the most commonly used base oils in plants, making up 47 percent of the capacity of plants.

 

Currently, Group II base oils are becoming very common on the market today and are priced very close to Group I oils. Group III accounts for less than 1 percent of the capacity in plants. Group I base oils previously made up 56 percent of the capacity, compared to 28 percent of the capacity in today’s plants.

GROUP III BASE OIL

Group III base oils are greater than 90 percent saturates, less than 0.03 percent sulfur and have a viscosity index above 120. These oils are refined even more than Group II base oils and generally are severely hydrocracked (higher pressure and heat). This longer process is designed to achieve a purer base oil.

Although made from crude oil, Group III base oils are sometimes described as synthesized hydrocarbons. Like Group II base oils, these oils are also becoming more prevalent.

Group IV BASE OIL

Group IV base oils are polyalphaolefins (PAOs) and the viscosity index of this group ranges from 125 to 200. These synthetic base oils are made through synthesizing. They have a much broader temperature range and are great for use in extreme cold conditions and high heat applications.

This Group consists of synthetic oils which are made of Poly Alpha Olefins (PAO). PAO Oils are much more stable in various temperatures compared to others. PAO oils are highly recommended for being used in freezing areas as in Northern Europe as well as hot areas as in the Middle East.

Group V BASE OIL

Group V base oils include silicone, phosphate ester, polyalkylene glycol (PAG), polyolester, biolubes, and other base oils. These base oils are sometimes combined with other base stocks to improve the qualities of the oil. A PAO-based compressor oil blended with a polyolester is one example. Esters are Group V base oils that are commonly employed in lubricant formulations to improve the characteristics of the current base oil. Ester oils may withstand greater temperatures and give improved detergency as compared to a PAO synthetic base oil, extending the hours of usage.

Typical Properties of Each Base Oil Group

Typical Properties of Each Base Oil Group

Typical Properties of Each Base Oil Group

30/40 bitumen means penetration grade bitumen type which its penetration is in the range 30 to 40 mm at 25 degree Celsius. Bitumen 30/40 is a hard grade of bitumen. This grade is one of the most used bitumen grades for road construction in tropical areas.

As the hot weather of these regions can be a challenge for mixtures of asphalt, bitumen 30/40 is offered due to its high air blowing and penetration value.

Bitumen grade 30/40 is produced from the vacuum residue in a refinery. 

GroupⅠGroupⅡGroupⅢUltra-S 4,6,8GroupⅣ
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Saturates, % 65~85 93~99+ 95~99+ 99+ 99+
Aromatics, % 15~35 <1~7 <1~5 <1 <1
Sulfur, ppm 300~3000 5~300 0~30 <1 n/a
Viscosity @ 100℃, cSt 4~32 4~30 4~8 4.0~7.6 4~70
Viscosity Index(VI) 95~105 95~118 123~150 120~135 125~150
Pour point, ℃ -15 -15 -15 -22.5 ~ -15 -45

Base oil Grades - Technical Specifications

Base Stocks created by the aforementioned methods are known as Solvent Neutral Base Oil (SN), SN stands for Solvent Neutral base oil, which is denoted by numbers based on their estimated SUS viscosity at 40°C, such as SN 90, SN150, SN350, SN500, and so on.

SN 150, SN 300, and SN 500 are light in color but the rest is dark. As a general notion, the more viscosity index is, the darker the color will be.

 

Base oil Grades - Technical Specifications

Group I – Base oil Grades – Technical Specifications

30/40 bitumen means penetration grade bitumen type which its penetration is in the range 30 to 40 mm at 25 degree Celsius. Bitumen 30/40 is a hard grade of bitumen. This grade is one of the most used bitumen grades for road construction in tropical areas.

As the hot weather of these regions can be a challenge for mixtures of asphalt, bitumen 30/40 is offered due to its high air blowing and penetration value.

Bitumen grade 30/40 is produced from the vacuum residue in a refinery. 

CharacteristicUnitSN-150SN-500Bright StockTest Method
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Kinematic viscosity at 100°C cSt4.4 – 5.6 9.7 – 12.0 min. 28 ASTM D-445
Kinematic viscosity at 40°C cSt 28 – 32 90 – 105 -ASTM D-445
Viscosity index (VI) -95 – 100 95 – 100 min. 95 ASTM D-2270
Flash Point °C min. 195 min. 210min. 276 ASTM D-92
Sulphur Content %Wt 0.15 – 0.60 0.15 – 0.60 0.15 – 0.600.15 – 0.60
Pour Point °C max. -6 max. -6 max. -9 ASTM D-97
Density @ 15°C Kg/L 0.870 – 0.890 0.885 – 0.895 0.900 – 0.910 ASTM D-1298
Color-max. 2 max. 2 max. 2 ASTM D-1500
TAN mg KOH/g max. 0.05 max. 0.05 max. 0.05 ASTM D-664
Carbon Residue Content %Wt 0.04 0.120.21ASTM D-189

Group II – Base oil Grades – Technical Specifications

30/40 bitumen means penetration grade bitumen type which its penetration is in the range 30 to 40 mm at 25 degree Celsius. Bitumen 30/40 is a hard grade of bitumen. This grade is one of the most used bitumen grades for road construction in tropical areas.

As the hot weather of these regions can be a challenge for mixtures of asphalt, bitumen 30/40 is offered due to its high air blowing and penetration value.

Bitumen grade 30/40 is produced from the vacuum residue in a refinery. 

CharacteristicUnitSN-150SN-500Bright StockTest Method
WhatsApp: (+968) 711 0378
Kinematic viscosity at 100°C cSt5.0-5.610.0-12.0-ASTM D-445
Kinematic viscosity at 40°C cSt 28 – 32 90 – 107-ASTM D-445
Viscosity index (VI) -95 – 110 95 – 110 -ASTM D-2270
Flash Point °C min. 210 min. 230-ASTM D-92
Sulphur Content %Wt max. 0.012 max. 0.012 -ASTM D-2622
Pour Point°C max. -12max. -12-ASTM D-97

Group III – Base oil Grades – Technical Specifications

30/40 bitumen means penetration grade bitumen type which its penetration is in the range 30 to 40 mm at 25 degree Celsius. Bitumen 30/40 is a hard grade of bitumen. This grade is one of the most used bitumen grades for road construction in tropical areas.

As the hot weather of these regions can be a challenge for mixtures of asphalt, bitumen 30/40 is offered due to its high air blowing and penetration value.

Bitumen grade 30/40 is produced from the vacuum residue in a refinery. 

CharacteristicUnit4cSt6cSt8cStTest Method
WhatsApp: (+968) 711 0378
Kinematic viscosity at 100°C cSt4.1– 4.4 5.7-6.5 7.6-8.2 ASTM D-445
Kinematic viscosity at 40°C cSt 19.0 – 20.0 32.0 – 37.0 43.8 – 50.1 ASTM D-445
Viscosity index (VI) -min. 120 min. 120 min. 120 ASTM D-2270
Flash Point °C min. 220 min. 220 min. 220 ASTM D-92
Sulphur Content %Wt 0.001 0.001 0.001 ASTM D-2622
Pour Point °C max. -12max. -12max. -12ASTM D-97

Base Oil Applications:

Base oils are primarily utilized in the production of lubricants such as vehicle oils, grease, motor oils, and metal processing oils. The viscosity of the base oil at different temperatures is an important component in how lubricants are created.

Base oil is extracted from certain crude oil lots based on the ease of extraction and molecular concentration. The majority of base oils are made from paraffinic crude oils, although naphthenic crude oils can provide products with higher solubility and excellent characteristics at low temperatures. Hydrogenation process removes sulfur and aromatics from crude oil, resulting in very pure base oils that meet stringent quality standards.

 

Packing of Recycled Base Oil

New or used 180 kg drums (Each 20-foot container takes 80 drums.)

Flexi tanks

A Flexi-bag, also known as Flexi tank, is a thick bag for conveying containers of non-corrosive and non-hazardous liquids. The maximum tolerable temperature in Flexi tank is +70 °C, and the minimum tolerable temperature is -50 °C.

The best transportation for recycled oil is flexitank. Flexitank has reduced the cost of non-hazardous materials transportation comparing to ISO Tanks and other methods of transportation such as barrels, IBCs, and tankers.

But Easy installation facilitates operation without highly specialized knowledge. The top and bottom valves provide a variety of loading and unloading capabilities. After unloading, the size of the Flexitank shrinks to about one cubic meter by folding, which is equal to 2% of its loaded size.

Types of Flexi tanks

Based on the number of discharge and loading valves and their location, Flexi-bags contain three categories as bellow.

Single valve Flexi tank: loading and unloading valve located on the top

Single valve Flexi tank: loading and unloading valve located at the bottom

Two-valve Flexi tank: the loading valve is on the top, and the discharge valve is at the bottom

Rumays is a market leader and key supplier in the base oil sector, with end-user knowledge. Our company provides the most commonly used grades of Group I, Group II, Group III base oils, Recycled base oils, and Process Oils in various packaging such as steel drums, flex-tanks, IBC tanks, ISO tanks, and so on, with monthly quantities ranging from 20 to 5000 To

 

 

 

Table of Contents

Performance grade (PG) bitumen is bitumen which is graded based on its performance at different temperatures. In super-pave grading system, binders are classified according to their performance in extreme hot and cold temperatures and called as performance grade (PG) bitumen.

The main purpose of grading and selecting asphalt binder using the PG system is to make certain that the binder has the appropriate properties needed for environmental conditions it’s going to be used in. PG asphalt binders are selected to meet expected climatic conditions as well as traffic speed and volume adjustments. Therefore, the PG system uses a set of tests to measure physical properties of the binder which can be directly related to field performance in the paving situation.