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Carbamide | Carbonyldiamide | Carbonyldiamine | Diaminomethanal | Diaminomethanone
Urea, a white crystalline solid containing 46% nitrogen, is widely used in the agricultural industry as an animal feed additive and fertilizer.
In common with most commercial nitrogen fertilizers, urea is manufactured from anhydrous ammonia (NH3).
Urea (46-0-0) usually has the lowest cost per pound of nitrogen compared to other single-element nitrogen fertilizers. However, urea undergoes unique chemical transformations when field applied and severe losses in efficiency may result if special management practices are not followed.
The high analysis of urea—46% N—is the main reason for the low cost of this form of nitrogen fertilizer. Freight costs and storage and handling are all lower than with lower analysis fertilizers such as ammonium nitrate (34-0-0) or ammonium sulfate (21-0-0).
In the past, it was usually produced by dropping liquid urea from a “prilling tower” while drying the product. The prilled formed a smaller and softer substance than other materials commonly used in fertilizer blends. Today, though, considerable urea is manufactured as granules. Granules are larger, harder, and more resistant to moisture. As a result, granulated urea has become a more suitable material for fertilizer blends.
Composition and Formula
Chemical Formula of Urea: CH4N2O
Nitrogen 46% is also known as carbamide, an organic compound of Oxygen, Nitrogen, Carbon, and Hydrogen with the following chemical formula:
CON2H4 or (NH2)2CO.
Urea, also known as carbamide, is an organic compound with chemical formula CO(NH2)2. This amide has two –NH2 groups joined by a carbonyl (C=O) functional group.
Urea serves an important role in the metabolism of nitrogen-containing compounds by animals and is the main nitrogen-containing substance in the urine of mammals.
It is a colorless, odorless solid, highly soluble in water, and practically non-toxic (LD50 is 15 g/kg for rats). Dissolved in water, it is neither acidic nor alkaline. The body uses it in many processes, most notably nitrogen excretion.
The liver forms it by combining two ammonia molecules (NH3) with a carbon dioxide (CO2) molecule in the urea cycle. Urea is widely used in fertilizers as a source of nitrogen (N) and is an important raw material for the chemical industry.
Friedrich Wöhler’s discovery, in 1828, that Urea can be produced from inorganic starting materials, was an important conceptual milestone in chemistry. It showed, for the first time, that a substance, previously known only as a byproduct of life, could be synthesized in the laboratory, without biological starting materials, thereby contradicting the widely held doctrine vitalism, which stated that only living things could produce the chemicals of life.
Urea was first produced industrially by the hydration of calcium cyanamide but the easy availability of ammonia led to the development of ammonia/carbon dioxide technology. This is a two-step process where the ammonia and carbon dioxide react to form ammonium carbamate which is then dehydrated to urea.
In the process, ammonia and carbon dioxide are fed to the synthesis reactor which operates around 180-210oC and 150 bar pressure. The reaction mixture containing ammonia, ammonium carbamate, and urea is first stripped of the ammonia and the resultant solution passes through a number of decomposers operating at progressively reduced pressures. Here the unconverted carbamate is decomposed back to ammonia and carbon dioxide and recycled to the reactor.
The urea solution is concentrated by evaporation or crystallization, and the crystals can be melted to yield pure urea in the form of prills or granules. Prills are made by spraying molten urea from the top of a high tower through a counter-current air stream. Granular urea is formed by spraying molten urea into a mixture of dried urea particles and fines in a rotating drum.
Urea processes fall into two categories: external solution recycle systems, and internal solution stripping systems. In the former, energy is saved by high carbon dioxide conversion rates while the latter reduces net energy requirements by optimizing heat recovery.
What is Urea 46 Usage?
Urea is an organic compound that is widely used in the industrial sector for a variety of purposes. It is a colorless, crystalline solid that is highly soluble in water and has a low melting point. Urea is synthesized from ammonium carbamate and is an important component in the production of fertilizers, plastics, and other industrial products.
Fertilizers: Urea is one of the most widely used nitrogen fertilizers in the world. It is a high-nitrogen fertilizer that is applied to crops to provide the necessary nutrients for growth and increase crop yields. Urea is also used in the production of controlled-release fertilizers, which release nitrogen into the soil slowly over time.
Plastics: Urea-formaldehyde resins are commonly used in the production of molded and laminated plastic products, such as kitchen countertops, electrical switchboards, and adhesives. The urea-formaldehyde resin is formed by the reaction of urea and formaldehyde, and it provides the final product with strength, stability, and durability.
Animal Feed: Urea is used as a source of nitrogen in the production of animal feed, including feed for poultry, cattle, and swine. Urea is added to animal feed to provide the necessary nutrients for growth and improve the quality of the feed.
Fuel Additives: Urea is used as a diesel exhaust fluid, which is added to diesel fuel to reduce emissions of nitrogen oxides, a harmful air pollutant. The urea reacts with the nitrogen oxides in the exhaust to form nitrogen and water, reducing the amount of harmful pollutants released into the atmosphere.
Urea can be a raw material for fermentation of sugars into ethanol, tooth whitening products, flavor-enhancing additive for a cigarette, flame-proofing agent and so on. Moreover, urea is a component of animal feed and non-corroding alternative to rock salt.
Hair removers and dish soaps may have urea in their ingredients.
In conclusion, urea is a versatile and widely used industrial chemical that has a wide range of applications in the fertilizer, plastic, animal feed, and fuel additive industries. Its properties, including its high solubility in water and low melting point, make it a valuable component of modern industry, and its proper use and handling are important to ensure a safe and sustainable future.
How Urea works for the plants
Plants can’t eat urea in the form you spread across your yard. Instead, plants use the byproducts produced as urea starts to break down. Urea initially breaks down as ammonium, then turns into nitrate. This breakdown begins immediately after spreading the Urea, which is why you must work fast to incorporate it into the soil, preferably within two days. The ammonium might be released as a gas if the granules sit on top of the surface, reducing the amount of material that turns into helpful nitrate in the soil.
The nitrogen from the Urea stays in the soil until the plants either use it up or it’s leached out by water. The amount of time it’s available varies, depending on how many plants the urea is feeding and how much rainfall the area gets. Even if some remain in the soil when you’re ready to add more fertilizer, it might not be enough to support the plants through the next season. Testing nitrogen levels with self-test kits let you know when it’s time to add more Urea.
Advantage of Fertilizer Urea
Nitrogen from urea can be lost to the atmosphere if fertilizer urea remains on the soil surface for extended periods of time during warm weather. The key to the most efficient use of urea is to incorporate it into the soil during a tillage operation. It may also be blended into the soil with irrigation water. A rainfall of as little as 0.25 inches is sufficient to blend urea into the soil to a depth at which ammonia losses will not occur.
If properly applied, urea and fertilizers containing urea are excellent sources of nitrogen for crop production. After application to the soil, urea undergoes chemical changes and ammonium (NH4 +) ions form. Soil moisture determines how rapidly this conversion takes place.
When a urea particle dissolves, the area around it becomes a zone of high pH and ammonia concentration. This zone can be quite toxic for a few hours. Seed and seedling roots within this zone can be killed by the free ammonia that has formed. Fortunately, this toxic zone becomes neutralized in most soils as the ammonia converts to ammonium. Usually it’s just a few days before plants can effectively use the nitrogen. Although urea imparts an alkaline reaction when first applied to the soil, the net effect is to produce an acid reaction.
Urea or materials containing urea should, in general, be broadcast and immediately incorporated into the soil. Urea-based fertilizer applied in a band should be separated from the seed by at least two inches of soil. Under no circumstances should urea or urea-based fertilizer be seed-placed with corn.
With small grains, 10 lb. of nitrogen as urea can generally be applied with the grain drill at seeding time even under dry conditions.
Disadvantage of Urea
Urea has several advantages, including cost per pound of nitrogen, higher nutrient density, and good handling and storage properties.
The biggest disadvantage is the potential for volatilization. This occurs when urea is surface-applied and converted to ammonium carbonate by urease.
What is Urea 46 package?
Packaging: 50 Kgs PP/PE with inner layer
It is packed in polyethylene and polypropylene bags, in special containers for friable products, and also in other types of packages.
A special process turns this liquid into round granules which can then be shipped in bulk cargo containers or packed into polythene bags.
Urea can be shipped in bulk or packed with taking certain care measures; such as the possibility of getting the product into the environment and spillage of the product.
Urea is transported by all transport facilities, in compliance with goods transportation regulations applied to this type of transport means.
Shelf life – 6 months from the date of production
Types of Urea
Urea is produced in two types of granules and perils. Urea has the highest nitrogen content of 46%. Both granular and peril types are used in agriculture.
– As a component of fertilizer and animal feed, providing a relatively cheap source of fixed nitrogen to promote growth.
– As a raw material for the manufacture of plastics specifically, urea-formaldehyde resin.
– As a raw material for the manufacture of various glues (urea-formaldehyde or urea-melamine-formaldehyde). The latter is waterproof and is used for marine plywood.
– As an alternative to rock salt in the deicing of roadways and runways. It does not promote metal corrosion to the extent that salt does.
– As an additive ingredient in cigarettes, designed to enhance flavour.
– Sometimes used as a browning agent in factory-produced pretzels.
– As an ingredient in some hair conditioners, facial cleansers, bath oils and lotions.
– It is also used as a reactant in some ready-to-use cold compresses for first-aid use, due to the endohermic reaction it creates when mixed with water.
– Active ingredient for diesel engine exhaust treatment AdBlue and some other SCR systems.
– Used, along with salts, as a cloud seeding agent to expedite the condensation of water in clouds, producing precipitation.
– The ability of urea to form clathrates (also called “loose compounds” host-guest complexes, inclusion compounds, and adducts) was used in the past to separate paraffins.
– As a flame-proofing agent.
– As a clean burning fuel for motor vehicles and stationary engines.
– As a NOx-reducing reactant in diesel exhaust.
More than 90% of world production of urea is destined for use as a nitrogen-release fertilizer. Urea has the highest nitrogen content of all solid nitrogenous fertilizers in common use. Urea is a raw material for the manufacture of many important chemical compounds, such as : plastics (urea-formaldehyde resins), adhesives ( urea-melamine- formaldehyde) and industrial feedstock ( Potassium cyanate ).
UREA prill is a small diameter, spherical white solid. It is an organic amide molecule containing 46% nitrogen in the form of amine groups. UREA is infinitely soluble in water and is suitable for use as an agricultural and forestry fertilizer as well as for industrial applications which require a high quality nitrogen source. It is not a poison to mammals and birds and is a benign and safe chemical to handle.
– UREA prill is used as a slow release fertilizer. It must be decomposed by microorganisms before it can be assimilated by plants.
– Always exercise caution when using this chemical as fertilizer because it has the highest nitrogen content of any solid.
Solid urea is the largest nitrogen fertilizer product which is produced in two forms of granules and prills. Although the chemical properties of both prills and granules remain similar, their different physical and mechanical properties are distinguishable and make them suitable for different application either as fertilizer or raw materials for chemical industry. The objective of this work is to analyses physical and mechanical properties of urea granules produced in two different plants in Malaysia using fluidized bed process and compare them with the imported urea prills to the country; hence make a process-product relationship for urea finishing processes. Results of size distribution of the samples show that the most of the granules fall in the size range between 2.40 and 3.50 mm, whereas the prills size is around 1.60 mm. Strength measurement using side crushing test also shows that the prills with the average failure load of 3.80 N remain significantly weaker than the granules with failure load of 10-17 N. Strength distribution of the particles also shows that a more uniform strength distribution is observed for the prills than the granules. It is concluded that the urea prilling process is the finishing process which produces the weaker and the more uniform size and strength of the particles than the fluidized-bed granulation process.
The purpose of this fact sheet is to briefly describe urea transformations and to suggest how urea-N may be conserved with proper management in the field.
30/40 bitumen means penetration grade bitumen type which its penetration is in the range 30 to 40 mm at 25 degree Celsius. Bitumen 30/40 is a hard grade of bitumen. This grade is one of the most used bitumen grades for road construction in tropical areas.
As the hot weather of these regions can be a challenge for mixtures of asphalt, bitumen 30/40 is offered due to its high air blowing and penetration value.
Bitumen grade 30/40 is produced from the vacuum residue in a refinery.
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|BS DIN EN 15478
|BS DIN EN 15479
|H.F.T 1.6 & SBB 0071-02-E
|Formaldhide in Industrial Urea
|H.F.T 1.6 & SBB 0071-02-E
|Anticake in Industrial Urea